I’ve come to the belief that any government structure can work with the right political culture and any government structure can be sabotaged with a bad political culture. The best government is a government that is aware of its political culture and attempts to engineer and maintain that political culture, to optimize it’s belief system and priorities. Any government that doesn’t maintain it’s political culture is vulnerable to the possibility of that culture gradually changing from generation to generation, in such a way that would make the government less efficient and less effective.
Fractal Federation standardized the mechanism for voting. It is a preferential vote system with variables which can be adjusted by the Regulators of the Representative Department. The variables are the minimum percentage of the constituency required to be participating, the minimum percentage of the vote required to win, the time between run-off elections and the maximum run-off elections. This allows each levels’ Regulators to customize the difficulty in getting someone elected, to manipulate the political culture of a given constituency. Representatives do not have term limits and a new election can be initiated by any constituency at any time. All they have to do is have the minimum percentage of the constituency required to be participating. The voting system is virtual and anyone can vote using a mobile device or computer with internet access.
The borders of voting districts are determined using a modified version of Olsen’s algorithm. Olson’s algorithm draws districts that respect the boundaries of actual neighborhoods, to prevent neighborhoods from being cut in half. It also attempts to keep each district equal in population and makes the zone as compact as possible. Fractal Federation modified it for the country-level zones, to attempt to keep communities with the same primary language grouped together.
Since each constituency only has 357 voters, it is easy for the constituency to determine if there was voter fraud and trigger a re-vote using the mobile application. Another benefit is that, since there are no term limits, the system isn’t rigged against plans that take more than 2 or 4 years. With the United States’ current system, there is no incentive to come up with plans that are more subtle and may take longer for results to become detectable. The current political environment, politicians want plans that show results sooner so they can use that success to get re-elected. Long-term plans are less viable politically, even if they make the most sense in every other way. Another benefit of a Ranked voting system, is that instead of a country electing someone that only 31% of the country loves and the other 69% of the country hates, it attempts to find a candidate that the majority of the country is okay with. There are already counties in the United States and countries in Europe that use a Ranked voting system.
Fractal Federation’s government is a Cellular Democracy. It divides up the world into Community Zones, which each have 357 voters. Each Community Zone elects a Community Executor. Every 357 Community Zones are grouped together into City Zones and then the 357 Community Executors elect a City Executor. Some cities, like New York City, may add 1 to 2 additional layers to its representative hierarchy. In New York City’s case, they would have the Community Executors elect District Executors and then the 67 District Executors would elect the City Executor. If a place is not incorporated into a city, then it’s grouped together with other unincorporated places into County Zones with the Community Executors electing a County Executor. 357 City/County Executors elect a State Executor or Governor. After that, 357 Governors elect a Country Executor and then the Presidents elect an Earth Executor. By 2600, Venus, Earth, and Mars have Executors, as well as, the billion people living on space stations between Venus and Earth, which is known as Twin Space. The Planet Executors and the Twin Space Executor elect a Star System Executor. By 2600, there are also 1400 star systems that have been colonized with 4 Star Cluster Executors.
There are several benefits to this structure. The first is that, since no candidate needs to campaign for more than 357 votes, it effectively removes money from politics. The second beneficial attribute is that, as you move up the representative hierarchy, the voters become better informed with first-hand experience. Governors know what makes a good President, more so than the average citizen. Another benefit is that it makes it easier to inform and poll the public through a series of 357-person conferences. If the President wants to do something, he can invite 357 Governors to a conference and then do a presentation. Then the Governors can do a presentation for their City and County Executors and so on, all the way down to the base citizen. The government could use the same approach to poll the public, which would be more accurate than any present-day poll. If the President does something the Governors don’t like, the Governors can trigger an election and replace him or her. This provides a check and balance and forces the representatives to inform their constituents.
The Representative Department
The Representative Department is made up of the Executors, which can appoint Allocators and Regulators. It is also made up of the Congress, which has two houses, the House of Experts and the House of Lobbyists. Both houses exist on the city/county level and all of the levels above. The Executors and the two Houses use a Cellular Democracy, with members of the lower level electing representatives for the level above.
The Community Executor won’t have any Agencies to run, instead, the Community Executor would serve as a single point-of-contact. The Community Executor would replace the role of clerks that provide unemployment benefits, department of motor vehicles, filing taxes, etcetera. They would also have a role similar to a CEO towards the Board of Directors. Every 3 months, the Community Executors would give a presentation to every citizen, updating them on what the government is currently working on and it’s progress. The Executors above Community Zones can also appoint two positions, the Allocator and Regulator. The three positions are similar to a corporation’s CEO, COO, and CFO. The Executors, Allocators, and Regulators are the top three positions of each government agency of the same level. The Executor can create and destroy agencies using the building blocks provided by the other Departments. The Executor can acquire the funding needed for an agency by having the Regulator increase the tax rate or have the Allocator reduce the budget of other agencies, to free up the required resources. The Executor can also appoint Vice Executors if the workload of administrating the agencies on their level becomes too much for one person. The number of Vice Executors they can appoint is determined by the Regulator of the level above.
With the Community Executor being the primary point-of-contact and having face-to-face interactions with constituents, should make the government more personable and increase approval ratings. It would also make the average citizen feel like they are a part of the government, not just an anonymous social security number. In the United States, most politicians pander their constituency, tell them what they want to hear, even if the politician believes something different than their constituency. Most politicians aren’t willing to commit politcal suicide in an attempt to change their constituency’s popular opinion. In the current system, the politician would need to raise millions of dollars to advertise a plan during a 30 second commercial break. The Executor has more power than a US President but if the constituents on the level below don’t approve of an Executor’s plan, they can trigger an election at any time and replace them. An Executor with a controversial plan, would hold a conference to educate the constituents on the plan. The conference could be held at a local high school’s auditorium, which would be much more detailed than a 30 second argument made on a mainstream political show.
The Allocator has the role of a conventional Chief Financial Officer and also has the ability to change the budgets of agencies throughout the year. For example, the Allocator can reduce the Crime Fighting Agency’s budget for homicide investigations and increase the budget for theft investigations during the winter months, if historically, homicides decrease and thefts increase during the winter. Homicide Investigations and Theft Investigations would layoff and hire respectively. Using a dynamic budget, the allocator can increase the efficiency of the government as a whole by minimizing idle hands. The Allocator can appoint a number of Vice Allocators based on the variable set by the Regulator of the level above.
The Regulator has a role similar to a Chief Operations Officer but it has evolved. The Regulator can create new variables and can change the value of existing variables. The variables include everything, from the number of employees for a unit, the performance goal for each individual in that unit, the pay for a position, the bonus goal, the bonus reward, the variables for the voting system, the tax rate for governments on the level below, amongst many others. The Regulator can also set the number of representatives and their pay, for each field of study in the House of Experts and add new fields of study when the need arises. The Regulator can appoint a number of Vice Regulators based on the variable set by the Regulator on the level above.
The House of Experts have positions available for each field of study and only citizens with doctorates from approved educational institutions in that field of study, may vote for a candidate or attempt to be elected as that field of study’s representative. The House of Experts doesn’t have any legislative powers and is more like a cabinet of consultants for the Executor and the agencies of their level. The House of Experts does have one power, it can summon the Executor of the same level at any time.
In the United States, most Congress men and women campaign on “wedge issues” but once they are elected, they invest no time into the issues they campaigned on. Instead, they join a committee and specialize in a specific area like banking. Most voters have no idea what their representative has specialized in and they usually are not experts in that area.
The House of Lobbyists have representatives for industries and special interest groups, which serve as consultants for the rest of the government. There can be any number of representatives representing any number of interest groups. Representatives in the House of Lobbyist are not paid by the government and have no official powers. The House of Lobbyists uses software similar to eParty to organize and consult. The government may wish to add a new regulation to achieve the desired change in an industry so feedback from industry experts would be beneficial.
In the United States, this already happens but it is all done behind the scenes. This structure attempts to create an official mechanism in order to level the playing field between interest groups and to create more transparency.
The Other Departments
In addition to the Representative Department and the Judicative Department, there are 5 additional departments, which serve as the building blocks for government agencies. Each Department has 3 Orders, which are broken down further into Classes and then Subjects. For example, the Supportive Department has the Inspection Order, which contains the IT Systems Class, which contains the Networking Subject. The Departmental Hierarchy starts with the Executor on the same level as the agency. The Dallas Executor would be in charge of the Investigative Department Director for the Dallas CFA, who is in charge of the Collection Order Director, who is in charge of the IT Systems Chief, who is in charge of the Networking Manager.
The following is each department with each of their 3 Orders.
- Investigative Department (Collection, Speculation, and Interpretation)
- Supportive Department (Inspection, Construction, and Preservation)
- Educative Department (Conception, Communication, and Retrospection)
- Defensive Department (Isolation, Protection, and Facilitation)
- Aggressive Department (Infiltration, Neutralization, and Facilitation)
There can be a second hierarchy which is known as the Operational Hierarchy. Operational Hierarchies allow an agency to mix members of different Departmental Hierarchy Subjects to create teams with multiple specialties. Operational Hierarchies use military structures and ranks with higher ranks singularly focused on strategy and command while the administrative duties are left to the Departmental Hierarchy. Both the ADA and CFA use Operational Hierarchies.
- Theater (5 Groups, Leader: 6-Star General)
- Group (5 Armies, Leader: 5-Star General)
- Army (5 Corps, Leader: General)
- Corp (5 Divisions, Leader: Lieutenant General)
- Division (5 Brigades, Leader: Major General)
- Brigade (5 Regiments, Leader: Brigadier General)
- Regiment (5 Battalions, Leader: Colonel)
- Battalion (5 Companies, Leader: Lieutenant Colonel)
- Company (5 Troops, Leader: Major)
- Troop (5 Platoons, Leader: Captain)
- Platoon (5 Sections, Leader: Lieutenant)
- Section (5 Squads, Leader: Staff Sergeant)
- Squad (5 Teams, Leader: Sergeant)
- Team (5 Privates, Leader: Corporal)
While the agencies use top-down appointments, there is software where any employee can review any other employee and post suggestions which can be up-or-down voted by other employees.
Over the course of 600 years, Fractal Federation gradually reorganized the government and by the year 2600, the following agencies exist:
- Agency Defending Agency or ADA consolidates all the roles where Fractal Federation interacts with foreign organizations. It includes ambassadors, intelligence gathering and the military. The ADA only exists on the highest level of government.
- Crime Fighting Agency or CFA is the consolidated law enforcement. It exists from the city/county level up to the highest level. The CFA focuses a significant amount of resources on Cultural Engineering, to prevent crime. The city/county CFA focuses on crimes that occur within their jurisdiction; the State CFA focuses on city/county level governments and inter-city/county crime; and so on. The State CFA jurisdiction may include state resources, such as a state-funded highway. In the event of an emergency, the CFA can swarm, which allows CFA agents from one jurisdiction to assist another jurisdiction. For example, if there was a terrorist attack in Philadelphia, agents from Lancaster could self-deploy up to the State level, under the command of the Pennsylvania CFA. CFA Agents in Delaware could self-deploy to the North American CFA. Swarming is organized using software, which has a variable set by the Regulator of the Representative Department, establishing the minimum number of agents for each level. Any excess agents can be used to swarm.
- Tax Collecting Agency or TCA is the consolidated tax collection agency that exists on city/county level up to the highest level. The Country level TCA collects taxes from State level governments. The State TCA collects taxes from city and county level governments. Then the city/county level governments collect taxes from individuals and businesses.
- Disaster Fighting Agency or DFA is a consolidated organization that focuses on disasters such as fires, disease outbreaks, self-replicating nanomachine outbreaks, invasive species, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, floods, earthquakes, meteorite impacts, etcetera. Members of the organization spend their downtime getting certifications for different types of disasters. The DFA can swarm like the CFA. The DFA exists on the city/county level, up to the highest level of government.
- Nature Engineering Agency or NEA preserves ecosystems and maintains the balance between species. The NEA is also responsible for the terraforming of Venus and Mars, as well as, hydroponic farms on space stations. The NEA exists on the city/county level and up.
- Technology Developing Agency or TDA is a centralized research and development organization that handles all the R&D of all technologies for all the government agencies.
- Citizen Informing Agency or CIA studies governments, corporations, and cultures and then provides Constituent Reports, Consumer Reports, and Culture Reports. The CIA exists on the city/county level and up.
- Mass Transporting Agency or MTA exists on each level of government, from the city/county level to the highest level. The MTA manages roads, highways, railways, subways, maglev trains, airports, star trams and space travel.
- Consumable Testing Agency or CTA does drug trials on anything that enters the human body. They do drug trials on every molecule found in nature and every molecule manufactured by scientists. The CTA does long-term drug trials using a supercomputer, that can simulate the entire human body, from conception to 100 years of age, in a fraction of the time it would take to do drug trials on real humans.
- Data Collecting Agency or DCA does indiscriminate data collection, collecting any and all data, even data that seems irrelevant. The data is made available to researchers and other agencies through an API. Researchers can then do pattern recognition on that data using non-sentient Artificial Intelligences. The DCA exists on the city/county level and up.
- Economy Engineering Agency or EEA is responsible for regulating the economy. A corporation is primarily and consistently motivated by profit. A corporation may not always do what is best for society so it’s the EEA’s responsibility to create new incentives and disincentives to manipulate corporations and industries to have the desired behavior.
- Offspring Regulating Agency or ORA is responsible for regulating offspring through the use of Offspring Credits. Each citizen is given 3 Offspring Credits and it cost 2 credits to have a single offspring. Offspring include natural born humans, genetically engineered humans, an entirely new genetically engineered sentient species, a physical or digital clone and a sentient artificial intelligence. Offspring Credits can be traded. If a citizen is caught having more offspring than they have credits, they are fined the market value of Offspring Credits. The ORA also regulates mind transfers, since the process could be used to create clones.
- Youth Teaching Agency or YTA provides education for anyone under the age of 18. Elementary schools have a school-wide secondary language, which can differ between elementary schools. There are three high school variants, the Special Arts high school, the Liberal Arts high school and the Command Arts high school. High schools are encouraged to be unique and innovative, market their school to prospective students and carve out their own niche market. Each of the high school variants have counselors that are responsible for student discipline and student priorities. Command Arts high schools have counselors that wear uniforms and enforce a strict military-like discipline. The Liberal Arts high school is more casual and the counselors specialize in psychology and sociology. The Special Arts high school allows students to have custom curriculums and schedules so they can move at their own pace. Special Arts is for students that learn at a faster pace, students with learning disabilities and students that need a custom schedule so they can participate in a childhood career. If a particular school is having performance issues, the counselor to student ratio is increased for that school and the counselors attempt to change the priorities of the student culture, to have them place more importance on education. Middle schools have counselors from each of the high school variants and teach Universal Arts. Universal Arts teaches fundamental skills such as The Scientific Method and attempts to expose the students to every possible field of study, to increase the chance that a student will find something they are passionate about. Middle school teachers would be more focused on the sales pitch instead of wasting time teaching students knowledge they will most likely never use and eventually forget. Every school in Fractal Federation must teach a curriculum that is culturally objective.
eParty is a social networking software based party that generates every possible party. The party system allows citizens to join groups then use campaign tools to advocate positions. Campaign tools include a virtual call center that can be used to make and receive voice calls and text messages, an email list server and the ability to send newsletters and have them printed up and mailed to everyone on the mailing list. The other part of the site is the debate section, which facilitates objective data based debate using artificial intelligence. Each debate is split into two halves, the philosophical side and the engineering of the implementation.
Relativistic Moral Universalism
The Judicative Department
The Judicative Department has a Clarifier, Reconciliator, and Authorizer. The Clarifier is responsible for interpretation of law and can reject Executive Orders if they are open to multiple interpretations or the interpretation doesn’t reflect the wishes of the Executor. The Reconciliator is responsible for criminal trials where a victim or culture (in the cases of cities or counties with cultural crimes) was wronged. The Authorizer can approve or deny requests by government agencies to access personal information, arrest or search and seize any business or citizen. The legal system in Fractal Federation has also changed, with a technical legal language, GovLang, which has it’s own dictionary and grammatical rules to ensure a consistent interpretation throughout the eternal history of Fractal Federation. Laws usually take form as a well crafted philosophical principles with hundreds, if not thousands of contextual examples. Criminal trials have one Reconciliator for each party and there can be more than two parties. Reconciliators are selected from the lowest common denominator pool of Reconciliators. In the event of a tie, the tie would be broken by the lowest common denominator Executor of the Representative Department. There is also the option of a Cultural Jury, where two jurors are selected for each party from each governing level. For example, two jurors are selected from the city/county level, the state level and the country level for each party. In complex cases involving more than two parties, the two respective juror columns will deliberate on each interaction. Cultural Jury trials usually take place in an Artificial Reality courtroom.