Time Travel

Time travel into the future is easy, just sit on your couch and enjoy the ride. There is a lot of science fiction movies and TV shows that have time travel but it is extremely rare for one to do time travel in a way that is logically consistent. Einstein came up with a theory Special Relativity. Special Relativity makes the claim that if an observer is moving faster, then the passage of time is slower relative to an observer... Click to read more.

Mind Backups and Mind Transfers

I consider Mind Backups to be one of the most difficult capabilities in my universe. I think it’s possible but it’s hard to know how much time the process would take and how accurate it would be, without already being able to do it. We don’t have a full understanding of the human brain yet, so we don’t know what information we would need to make a duplicate. For my universe, I am trying to be conservative, with a worse-case... Click to read more.

NanoMachines, Genetic Engineering and NanoFactories

We know self-replicating nanomachines are possible because nature has already invented them. In biology, a single cell can duplicate and modify itself, to specialize for a specific purpose, like a neuron in the brain. There is no doubt that one day, humanity will gain this capability. Humanity’s nanomachines could be a hybrid of biological and man-made mechanisms or purely artificial, with mechanisms we discovered which surpass their counterparts found in nature. Imagine filling a bathtub with water, pouring in the... Click to read more.


I didn’t want Fractal Federation using a language like English as it’s legal/official language because that would be showing preferential treatment towards English-speaking cultures. Some areas that require a lot of international interactions have de facto official languages, like English for aviation. Instead of just picking a language, I decided to create a new language solely for law and government use. GovLang was created for the purposes of law and international interactions. All naturalistic languages have rules and many exceptions... Click to read more.

Artificial Gravity and Space Stations

Right now, the only known way to create gravity is with mass. To create Earth-like gravity, you would need a ball of mass as large as the Earth. The Earth doesn’t have the highest possible density, a neutron star or even a small black hole could create Earth-like gravity using a sphere of mass that is much smaller in diameter. Using the density of a neutron star, the sphere could be as small as 0.05 cubic kilometers. There is no... Click to read more.

Immortality and Population Growth

The human body is not magical, it’s a machine, that takes advantage of the laws of physics. It is the product of random mutations and natural selection. This process has resulted in a machine that has flaws, such as dying from old age. In the past, humans were very unlikely to die from old age, so if a mutation ever occurred to make humans immortal, it provided very little benefit and probably never became widespread in the human population. Over... Click to read more.

Artificial Reality, Augmented Reality and Artificially Intelligent Game Engine

Virtual reality has been a twinkle in the eyes of nerds for several decades now but only recently has the technology reached the point where it’s practical for general consumption. I personally think virtual reality will be short lived. A few decades from now we will have the capability to take it to the next level. Some techies are calling it fully immersive virtual reality or FIVR, a virtual reality that taps directly into our sensory nerves, bypassing the sensory... Click to read more.

Artificial Intelligence

Out of all the technologies we know-to-be possible and that we will inevitably invent, artificial intelligence is probably the most imminent. We know it’s possible because humans exist. The human brain is a machine that takes advantage of the laws of physics. To be completely honest, biology is the most advanced technology on the planet and it will probably be another hundred years before our own technology reaches the sophistication of biology. Even if there is no other way to... Click to read more.


The basic requirements for human life is: a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere and water. Most rocky planets will have all the other raw materials, which can be mined. In our star system, there are two planets that are potential terraforming candidates: Mars and Venus. The atmosphere of Venus is 90 times more massive than Earth and nearly all of it is Carbon Dioxide. While Nitrogen only makes up a small percentage of the Venusian atmosphere, there is still four times more Nitrogen... Click to read more.


The universe is 13.8 billions years old. The Earth formed 4.5 billion years ago and life miraculously came into existence 3.8 billion years ago. Our star and planet are relatively young; scientists have discovered a planet at least 12.7 billion years old. If an older planet had life, a technological extraterrestrial civilization could have left their star system as much as 8.2 billion years ago. Using technology that we know is possible, an alien civilization could have colonized the entire... Click to read more.

Interstellar Travel

Interstellar travel is the foundation of many science fiction universes so it’s an obvious first topic to research. At light speed, it would take almost 4.3 years to reach the nearest star. Sailing across the Atlantic ocean only took as much as 6 months. If faster-than-light travel is possible, it would definitely be worth it. With present-day science, the only two contenders are warp drives and wormholes. Wormholes or the Einstein-Rosen bridge, could exist IF there is exotic matter with... Click to read more.